Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Items subject to the use of estimates include, but are not limited to, the standalone selling price for our products and services, our various digital asset transactions, stock-based compensation, useful lives of long-lived assets including intangibles, fair value of intangible assets and the recoverability or impairment of tangible and intangible assets, including goodwill, contingent consideration for our business combination with Lyte and periodic reassessment of fair value, allocating the fair value of purchase consideration to assets acquired and liabilities assumed in our business combination, reserves and certain accrued liabilities, the benefit period of deferred commissions, assumptions used in Black-Scholes valuation method, such as the current trading price of our common stock at time of exercise of our warrant, expected volatility, risk-free interest rate and expected dividend rate and provision for (benefit from) income taxes. Actual results could differ from those estimates and such differences could be material to the consolidated financial statements.
Risks and Uncertainties
Regulation governing blockchain technologies, cryptocurrencies, digital assets, digital asset exchanges, utility tokens, security tokens and offerings of digital assets is uncertain, and new regulations or policies may materially adversely affect the development and the value of our tokens and token ecosystem. Regulation of digital assets, like PhunCoin and PhunToken, cryptocurrencies, blockchain technologies and digital asset exchanges, is evolving and likely to continue to evolve. Regulation also varies significantly among international, federal, state and local jurisdictions and is subject to significant uncertainty. Various legislative and executive bodies in the United States and in other countries may in the future adopt laws, regulations, or guidance, or take other actions, which may severely impact the permissibility of tokens generally and the technology behind them or the means of transaction or in transferring them. Any such laws, regulations, guidance or other actions could adversely affect our ability to maintain PhunCoin and PhunToken, which could have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial condition. Failure by us to comply with any such laws and regulations, some of which may not exist yet or are subject to interpretation and may be subject to change, could also result in a material adverse effect on our operations and financial condition.
Revenue Recognition
On January 1, 2019, we adopted ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers ("ASC 606"). Generally, the provisions of ASC 606 state that revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised products or services in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive in exchange for those products or services. We enter into contracts that can include various combinations of products and services, which are generally capable of being distinct, distinct within the context of the contract and accounted for as separate performance obligations.
Contract Balances
The timing of revenue recognition may differ from the timing of invoicing for contracts with customers. When the timing of revenue recognition differs from the timing of invoicing, we use judgment to determine whether the contract includes a significant financing component requiring adjustment to the transaction price. Various factors are considered in this determination including the duration of the contract, payment terms and other circumstances. Generally, we determine that contracts do not include a significant financing component. We apply a practical expedient for instances where, at contract inception, the expected timing difference between when promised goods or services are transferred and associated payment will be one year or less. Payment terms vary by contract type; however, contracts typically stipulate a requirement for the customer to pay within 30 days.
The transaction price may be allocated to performance obligations that are unsatisfied or are partially unsatisfied. Amounts relating to remaining performance obligations on non-cancelable contracts include both the deferred revenue balance and amounts that will be invoiced and recognized as revenue in future periods.
Significant Judgments
When selling our platform subscriptions and services, our contracts with customers often include promises to transfer multiple products and services to a customer. Determining whether products and services are considered distinct performance
obligations that should be accounted for separately versus together may require significant judgment. For contracts with multiple performance obligations, the contract price is allocated to separate performance obligations on a relative standalone basis for which significant judgment is required. Judgment is required to determine whether a software license is considered distinct and accounted for separately, or not distinct and accounted for together with the software support and services and recognized over time. Significant judgment is also required relating to the timing of the satisfaction of performance obligations.
Platform Revenue
Our platform revenue consists of software subscriptions, application development services and support, application transactions, which are comprised of in-app advertising and PhunToken sales. Excluding PhunToken sales, in which we are paid in advance, typically our platform revenue customers pay us on net-30 day terms.
Subscriptions and Services. We derive subscription revenue from software license fees, which comprise subscription fees from customers licensing our Software Development Kits (SDKs), which include accessing the MaaS platform and/or MaaS platform data; application development service revenue from the development of customer applications, or apps, which are built and delivered to customers; and support fees. Our contract terms generally range from one to three years. License fees are typically billed annually in advance.
Subscription revenue from SDK licenses gives the customer the right to access our MaaS platform. In accordance with ASC 606, a ‘right to access’ license is recognized over the license period. Support and maintenance revenue is comprised of support fees for customer applications, software updates and technical support for application development services for a support term. Support revenue is recognized ratably over the support term. We typically bill subscriptions and support and maintenance annually in advance.
Application development revenue is derived from development services around designing and building new applications or enhancing existing applications. We recognize application development revenue upon the transfer of control of the completed application or application development services. We typically bill for application development revenue in advance at contract signing, but may at times, bill one-half in advance at contract execution and one-half upon completion.
When a customer contract consists of licensing, application development and support and maintenance, we consider these separate performance obligations, which would require an allocation of consideration, of which significant judgement is required.
From time to time, we may also provide professional services by outsourcing employees to customers on a time and materials basis. Revenues from these arrangements are recognized as the services are performed. We typically bill professional service customers in the month in which the services are performed.
Application Transaction Revenue. We also generate revenue by charging advertisers to deliver advertisements (ads) to users of mobile connected devices. Depending on the specific terms of each advertising contract, we generally recognize revenue based on the activity of mobile users viewing these ads. Fees from advertisers are commonly based on the number of ads delivered or views, clicks or actions by users on mobile advertisements delivered, and we recognize revenue at the time the user views, clicks or otherwise acts on the ad. We sell ads through several offerings: cost per thousand impressions, on which advertisers are charged for each ad delivered to 1,000 consumers; cost per click, on which advertisers are billed monthly for each ad clicked or touched on by a user; and cost per action, on which advertisers are charged each time a consumer takes a specified action, such as downloading an app.
In the normal course of business, we may act as an intermediary in executing transactions with third parties. The determination of whether revenue should be reported on a gross or net basis is based on an assessment of whether we are acting as the principal or an agent in our transactions with advertisers. Control is a determining factor in assessing principal versus agent relation. The determination of whether we are acting as a principal or an agent in a transaction involves judgment and is based on an evaluation of the terms of each arrangement. ASC 606 provides indicators of when an entity controls specified goods or services and is, therefore, acting as a principal. Based on the indicators of control, we have determined that we are the principal in all advertising arrangements because we are responsible for fulfilling the promise to provide the specified advertisements to advertising agencies or companies; establishing the selling prices of the advertisements sold; and credit risk with its advertising traffic providers. Accordingly, we act as the principal in all advertising arrangements and, therefore, report revenue earned and costs incurred related to these transactions on a gross basis.
PhunToken. During 2021, we announced the commencement of the selling of PhunToken to consumers, developers and brands. PhunToken is an innovative digital asset utilized within our token ecosystem to help drive engagement by
unlocking features and capabilities of our MaaS platform. We follow the guidance of ASC 606 in determination the revenue recognition of our PhunToken sales. PhunToken customers pay us at the time of purchase of PhunToken. We recognize revenue related to PhunToken at the time of delivery of PhunToken to a customer's ethereum-based digital wallet.
Hardware Revenue
We acquired Lyte Technology in October 2021. Revenue from Lyte is primarily derived from the sale of high-performance personal computers. Lyte computers are sold with a variety of pre-packaged solutions, as well as customizable solutions selected by our customers. Customers pay us in advance of shipment of their computer via the Lyte website. A majority of Lyte's customers pay us via credit card payments, which are managed through a third party processor. We recognize computer hardware revenue, including shipping, at the time a completed unit ships from our facility.
Deferred Commissions

    We defer commission costs and amortize them in a manner consistent with how we recognize revenue. Key judgments that impact our commission expense include estimating our customer life and the determination of the impairment of commission assets we deem to be unrecoverable. The Company applies a practical expedient and expenses these costs as incurred if the amortization period is one year or less.

Deferred commissions are recorded in prepaid and other current assets in our consolidated balance sheets. Changes in deferred commissions for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021 are as follows:
2022 2021
Balance, beginning of the year $ 148  $ 210 
Deferral of commissions earned 55  73 
Recognition of commission expense (67) (135)
Balance, end of the year $ 136  $ 148 
Business Combination
We account for business combinations using the acquisition method of accounting as prescribed in ASC 805, "Business Combinations (Topic 805)." We record the assets acquired, liabilities assumed and acquisition-related contingent consideration at fair value on the date of acquisition. The difference between the purchase price, including any contingent consideration, and the fair value of net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. We may adjust the preliminary purchase price and purchase price allocation, as necessary, during the measurement period of up to one year after the acquisition closing date as we obtain more information as to facts and circumstances that impact the determination of fair value at the acquisition date. Any change in fair value of acquisition-related contingent consideration resulting from events after the acquisition date is recognized in earnings. Acquisition-related costs are recognized separately from the acquisition and are expensed as incurred.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Our financial instruments that are exposed to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash, trade accounts receivable and our digital asset holdings.
Although we limit our exposure to credit loss by depositing our cash with established financial institutions that management believes have good credit ratings and represent minimal risk of loss of principal, our deposits, at times, may exceed federally insured limits.
There is currently no clearing house for our digital assets, including our bitcoin holdings, nor is there a central or major depository for the custody of our digital assets. There is a risk that some or all of our digital asset holdings could be lost or stolen. There can be no assurance that the custodians will maintain adequate insurance or that such coverage will cover losses with respect to our digital asset holdings. Further, transactions denominated in digital assets are irrevocable. Stolen or incorrectly transferred digital assets may be irretrievable. As a result, any incorrectly executed transactions could adversely our financial condition. The aggregate cost basis of our digital asset holdings is $37,737 at December 31, 2022.
Collateral is not required for accounts receivable, and we believe the carrying value approximates fair value. The following table sets forth our concentration of accounts receivable, net of specific allowances for doubtful accounts.

December 31,
2022 2021
Customer A 23  % —  %
Customer B % 20  %
Customer C % 18  %
Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash
We consider all investments with a maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition to be cash equivalents. The Company had no cash equivalents or restricted cash at December 31, 2022 or 2021.
Accounts Receivable and Reserves
Accounts receivable are presented net of allowances. We consider receivables past due based on the contractual payment terms. We make judgments as to our ability to collect outstanding receivables and record a bad debt allowance for receivables when collection becomes doubtful. The allowances are based upon historical loss patterns, current and prior trends in our aged receivables, credit memo activity and specific circumstances of individual receivable balances. Accounts receivable consisted of the following:

December 31,
2022 2021
Accounts receivable $ 1,156  $ 977 
Less allowances for doubtful accounts (198) (10)
Accounts receivable, net $ 958  $ 967 
Changes in the allowance for doubtful accounts are as follows:

December 31,
2022 2021
Balance, beginning of year $ 10  $ 356 
Provision for doubtful accounts, net of recoveries 198  (286)
Write offs (10) (60)
Balance, end of year $ 198  $ 10 
Our inventory consists of computer hardware materials and finished computers available-for-sale and are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value, determined using the first-in first-out (“FIFO”) method. We purchase inventory from suppliers both domestically and internationally. We believe that our products are generally available from more than one supplier and seek to maintain multiple sources for materials, both internationally and domestically. We may, at times, purchase products in bulk quantities to take advantage of quantity discounts and to ensure inventory availability. We recognize provisions for obsolete and slow-moving inventory primarily based on judgments about expected disposition of inventory, generally, through sales, or liquidations of obsolete inventory, and expected recoverable values based on currently available or historical information.
Digital Assets
Payments by customers in and purchases by us of digital assets were primarily of bitcoin and ethereum. We currently account for all digital assets held as a result of these transactions as indefinite-lived intangible assets in accordance with ASC 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other. We have ownership of and control over our digital assets and we may use third-party custodial services or self-custody solutions to secure them. The digital assets are initially recorded at cost and are subsequently remeasured, net of any impairment losses incurred since acquisition.
We determine the fair value of our digital assets on a nonrecurring basis in accordance with ASC 820, Fair Value Measurement, based on quoted prices on the active exchange(s) that we have determined is the principal market for bitcoin, ethereum and other digital asset holdings (Level 1 inputs). We perform an analysis each quarter to identify whether events or changes in circumstances, principally decreases in the quoted prices on active exchanges, indicate that it is more likely than not that our digital assets are impaired. In determining if an impairment has occurred, we consider the lowest intra-day market price quoted on an active exchange since acquiring the respective digital asset. If the then current carrying value of a digital asset exceeds the fair value, an impairment loss has occurred with respect to those digital assets in the amount equal to the difference between their carrying values and the fair value. The fair value of our digital asset holdings at December 31, 2022 is $10,808.
The impaired digital assets are written down to their fair value at the time of impairment and this new cost basis will not be adjusted upward for any subsequent increase in fair value. Gains are not recorded until realized upon sale. In determining the gain or loss to be recognized upon sale, we calculate the difference between the sales price and carrying value of the digital assets sold immediately prior to sale. Impairment losses and gains or losses on sales are recognized within other expense in our consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss. Impairment loss was $22,911 and $9,383 for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
The following table sets forth our digital asset holdings as of December 31, 2022:
Asset Gross Carrying Amount Accumulated Digital Asset Impairment Digital Asset Carrying
Bitcoin $ 34,994  $ (25,534) $ 9,460 
Ether 1,506  (1,156) 350 
Other 1,237  (910) 327 
Total $ 37,737  $ (27,600) $ 10,137 
The following table sets forth our digital asset holdings as of December 31, 2021:
Asset Gross Carrying Amount Accumulated Digital Asset Impairment Digital Asset Carrying
Bitcoin $ 36,963  $ (8,554) $ 28,409 
Ethereum 4,714  (670) 4,044 
Other 287  (159) 128 
Total $ 41,964  $ (9,383) $ 32,581 
Gross carrying amount and accumulated digital asset impairment noted above represent carrying amount and impairment, respectively, on the remaining cost lots as of the respective dates. Changes in our digital asset holdings for the year ended December 31, 2022 were as follows:
Bitcoin Ethereum Other Total
Net balance at December 31, 2021 $ 28,409  $ 4,044  $ 128  $ 32,581 
Received from customers, net of expenses 37  378  44  459 
Purchases of digital assets 923  —  —  923 
Exchanges of digital assets —  (906) 906  — 
Disposal proceeds (796) (486) —  (1,282)
Gain on sale of digital assets 69  298  —  367 
Impairment expense (19,182) (2,978) (751) (22,911)
Net balance at December 31, 2022 $ 9,460  $ 350  $ 327  $ 10,137 
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill arises from purchase business combinations and is measured as the excess of the cost of the business acquired over the sum of the acquisition-date fair values of tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired, less any liabilities assumed. In accordance with ASC 350, Intangibles — Goodwill and Other, we do not amortize goodwill or intangible assets with indefinite lives but rather assesses their carrying value for indications of impairment annually, or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may be impaired.
Our business is classified into two reporting units: Phunware and Lyte. In testing goodwill for impairment, we have the option to begin with a qualitative assessment, commonly referred to as “Step 0,” to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit containing goodwill is less than its carrying value. This qualitative assessment may include, but is not limited to, reviewing factors such as macroeconomic conditions, industry and market considerations, cost factors, entity-specific financial performance and other events, such as changes in our management, strategy and primary user base. If the Company determines that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value, we perform a quantitative goodwill impairment analysis by comparing the carrying amount to the fair value of the reporting unit. If the carrying amount exceeds the fair value, goodwill will be written down to the fair value and recorded as impairment expense in the consolidated statements of operations. We perform our impairment testing annually and when circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying value. The Company performed its annual impairment assessment of goodwill as of October 1, 2022 and concluded that goodwill was impaired. Refer to Note 6, Goodwill, for further discussion on our goodwill impairment.
Identifiable intangible assets consist of acquired trade names, customer lists, technology, in-process research and development and order backlog associated with the acquired businesses. Amortization of finite-lived intangible assets is calculated using either the straight-line or accelerated amortization model based on our best estimate of the distribution of the economic value of the identifiable intangible assets.
Long-Lived Assets
Long-lived assets with definite lives are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that an asset’s carrying value may not be recoverable. In accordance with authoritative guidance, we evaluate the recoverability of each of our long-lived assets, including property and equipment, by comparing its carrying amount to the undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated. If the total of undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of an asset, an impairment would be recognized for the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds its fair value.
We did not recognize any impairment losses relating to our long-lived assets during the years ended December 31, 2022 or 2021.
Debt Issuance Costs and Discount
Debt discounts and direct costs incurred to issue non-revolving debt instruments are recognized as a reduction to the related debt balance in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets and amortized to interest expense over the contractual term of the related debt using the effective interest method.
Derivative Liabilities
When the Company issues warrants, it evaluates the proper balance sheet classification of the warrant to determine whether the warrant should be classified as equity or as a derivative liability on the consolidated balance sheet. In accordance with ASC 815-40, Derivatives and Hedging - Contracts in the Entity’s Own Equity (“ASC 815-40”), we classify a warrant as equity if it is indexed to our equity and several specific conditions for equity classification are met. A warrant is not considered indexed to our equity, in general, when it contains certain types of exercise contingencies or adjustments to exercise price. If a warrant is not indexed to our equity or it has net cash settlement that results in the warrants to be accounted for under ASC 480, Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity, or ASC 815-40, it is classified as a derivative liability which is carried on the consolidated balance sheet at fair value with any changes in its fair value recognized currently in the statement of operations. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, we had a warrant that was classified as a liability and other warrants that were classified as equity.
We used a Black-Scholes option-pricing model to value the warrant classified as a liability at inception and subsequent valuation dates. The initial and subsequent valuations of the warrant require significant judgment.
We adopted ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), as of January 1, 2021, in which we recognize a right-of-use asset and lease liability for all operating leases with terms greater than twelve months. The lease liability is measured based on the present value of the lease payments not yet paid. The right-of-use asset is measured based on the initial measurement of the lease liability adjusted for any direct costs incurred upon commencement of the lease.
We have elected certain practical expedients permitted under the guidance. We have elected to apply the short-term lease exception for all leases, which we will not recognize right-of-use assets or lease liabilities for leases that, at the commencement date, have a term of twelve (12) months or less. We have also elected not to separate non-lease components from lease components. Lease components generally include rent, taxes and insurance, while non-lease components generally include common area or other maintenance.
We lease our corporate offices under operating leases and determine if an arrangement is or contains a lease at inception. The initial terms of our real property lease agreements are generally five years and typically allow for renewals in five-year increments. We may, at times, negotiate a shorter lease renewal term. We generally do not account for any renewals at the lease adoption date. We did not enter into any financing leases for the year ended December 31, 2022.
Stock-Based Compensation
Compensation expense related to stock-based transactions, including employee and non-employee director awards, is measured and recognized in the financial statements based on fair value on the grant date of the award. We recognize stock-based compensation expense for awards with only service conditions on a ratable basis over the requisite service period of the related award, generally the vesting period of the award. We have not granted any awards with market or performance conditions. Forfeitures of all stock-based awards are accounted for when they occur.
Research and Development Expense
Research and development expenses consist primarily of personnel costs for our engineering, product, design and quality assurance teams, including stock-based compensation for individuals dedicated to our research and development function. Additionally, research and development expenses include contractor fees and allocated overhead costs. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.
Retirement Plan
At December 31, 2022, we administered one employee retirement plan that qualified as a deferred salary arrangement under Section 401(k) of the Internal Revenue Code. Under the retirement plan, participating employees may contribute a portion of their pretax earnings, up to the Internal Revenue Service annual contribution limit. No employer matching contributions were made to the retirement plan during the years ended December 31, 2022 or 2021.
Income Taxes
We account for income taxes in accordance with ASC 740, Income Taxes ("ASC 740"). Under ASC 740, deferred tax assets and liabilities reflect the future tax consequences of the differences between the financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities using current enacted tax rates. Valuation allowances are recorded when the realizability of such deferred tax assets does not meet the more-likely-than-not threshold under ASC 740.
Significant judgment is required in determining any valuation allowance recorded against deferred tax assets. In assessing the need for a valuation allowance, we consider all available evidence, including past operating results, estimates of future taxable income and the feasibility of tax planning strategies. In the event of a change in the determination as to the amount of deferred tax assets that can be realized, an adjustment of the valuation allowance with a corresponding impact to the provision for income taxes will be made in the period in which such determination was made.
The guidance on accounting for uncertainty in income taxes prescribes a recognition threshold and measurement attribute criterion for financial statement recognition and measurement of tax positions taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. For those benefits to be recognized, a tax position must be more likely than not to be sustained upon examination by taxing authorities.
Comprehensive Loss
We apply the guidance in ASC 220, Comprehensive Income, for the reporting and display of comprehensive loss and its components in the consolidated financial statements. Comprehensive loss comprises net loss and cumulative foreign currency translation adjustments. Accumulated comprehensive loss at December 31, 2022 and 2021 was due to foreign currency translation adjustments.
Loss per Common Share
Basic loss per common share is computed by dividing net loss applicable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Restricted shares subject to repurchase provisions relating to early exercises under our 2009 Equity Incentive Plan were excluded from basic shares outstanding. Diluted loss per common share is computed by giving effect to all potential shares of common stock, including those related to our outstanding warrants and stock equity plans, to the extent dilutive. For all periods presented, these shares were excluded from the calculation of diluted loss per share of common stock because their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive. As a result, diluted loss per common share is the same as basic loss per common share for all periods presented. The following table sets forth common stock equivalents that have been excluded from the computation of dilutive weighted average shares outstanding as their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive:

December 31,
2022 2021
Warrants 6,632,561  5,636,801 
Options 961,779  925,467 
Restricted stock units 2,957,995  3,576,270 
Total 10,552,335 10,138,538
Fair Value Measurements
We follow the guidance in ASC 820, Fair Value Measurement, to measure certain assets and liabilities on a recurring and nonrecurring basis. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability. We use a fair value hierarchy, which distinguishes between assumptions based on market data (observable inputs) and an entity's own assumptions (unobservable inputs). The guidance requires fair value measurements be classified and disclosed in one of the following three categories:
Level 1: Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2: Quoted prices in markets that are not active or inputs which are observable, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.
Level 3: Prices or valuation techniques that require inputs that are both significant to the fair value measurement and unobservable (i.e., supported by little or no market activity).
Determining which category an asset or liability falls within the hierarchy requires significant judgment. Our assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2022 are set forth below:
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Total
Warrant liability $ —  $ 256  $ —  $ 256 
Total $ —  $ 256  $ —  $ 256 

    Our assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2021 are set forth below:
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Total
Warrant liability $ —  $ 3,605  $ —  $ 3,605 
Total $ —  $ 3,605  $ —  $ 3,605 

    The carrying value of accounts receivable, inventory, prepaid expenses, other current assets, accounts payable and accrued expenses are considered to be representative of their respective fair values because of the short-term nature of those instruments.
Loss Contingencies
We are subject to the possibility of various loss contingencies arising in the ordinary course of business. We accrue for loss contingencies when it is probable that an asset has been impaired or a liability has been incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. If we determine that a loss is possible and the range of the loss can be reasonably determined, then we disclose the range of the possible loss. We regularly evaluate current information available to us to determine whether an accrual is required, an accrual should be adjusted or a range of possible loss should be disclosed.
From time to time, we are involved in disputes, litigation and other legal actions. However, there are many uncertainties associated with any litigation, and these actions or other third-party claims against us may cause us to incur substantial settlement charges, which are inherently difficult to estimate and could adversely affect our results of operations. The actual liability in any such matters may be materially different from our estimates, which could result in the need to adjust our liability and record additional expenses.
Smaller Reporting Company
We are a "smaller reporting company" as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act, which qualifies the Company for reduced disclosure requirements and, if permitted, additional time to implement new or revised financial accounting standards. Smaller reporting company status is determined on an annual basis.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments ("ASU 2016-13"). ASU 2016-13 introduces a model based on expected losses for most financial assets and certain other instruments. In addition, for available-for-sale debt securities with unrealized losses, the losses will be recognized as allowances rather than reductions in the amortized cost of the securities. As a smaller reporting company, the standard is currently effective for us for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2022, with early adoption permitted for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019. We currently intend to adopt this new standard effective January 1, 2023. We currently do not expect the adoption of ASU 2016-13 to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and disclosures.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, Debt – Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging – Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815 – 40), (“ASU 2020-06”). ASU 2020-06 simplifies the accounting for certain financial instruments with characteristics of liabilities and equity, including convertible instruments and contracts in an entity’s own equity. ASU 2020-06 is effective for smaller reporting companies for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within those fiscal years. We did not have any convertible debt outstanding as of December 31, 2022; accordingly, we do not expect the adoption of ASU 2020-06 to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements and disclosures.