Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Income Taxes

Income Taxes
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  
Income Taxes

13. Income Taxes


Deferred income taxes are recognized for the tax consequences in future years for differences between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their financial reporting amounts at each year-end based on enacted tax laws and statutory tax rates applicable to the periods in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized. Income tax expense is the combination of the tax payable for the year and the change during the year in deferred tax assets and liabilities.


The Company has filed a change in accounting method relating to deferred revenue to adopt Internal Revenue Service Revenue Procedure 2004-34 with its 2017 tax returns. This change will revise the recognition of deferred revenue from a cash basis to an approach required under the Revenue Procedure. The net effect of this change is reflected in both the calculation of the current tax liability and taxes payable as well as the deferred tax balances.


For the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company had net losses before income taxes of $10.2 million and $26.0 million, respectively. Net losses relating to U.S. operations for were $9.9 million and $25.8 million, respectively.


The difference between income taxes expected at the U.S. federal statutory income tax rate of 21% and the reported income tax (benefit) expense are summarized as follows:


  December 31,  
    2018     2017  
Income Tax at Statutory Rate   $ (2,138 )   $ (8,856 )
Valuation allowance     2,266       9,376  
State income tax, net of federal benefit     (521 )     (518 )
Business tax credit net of reserves     (325 )     (224 )
Non-deductible expenses     341       88  
Foreign income taxes at different rate     3       46  
Income tax benefit   $ (374 )   $ (88 )
Effective tax rate     3.67 %     0.34 %


The provision expense (benefit) for income taxes consists of the following:


    Year Ended December 31,  
    2018     2017  
Federal   $     $  
State     13       5  
Total current     13       5  
Federal     (346 )     (102 )
State     (41 )     9  
Total deferred     (387 )     (93 )
Total   $ (374 )   $ (88 )


The components of net deferred income taxes consist of the following:


    December 31,  
    2018     2017  
Deferred tax assets:            
Net operating loss   $ 24,280     $ 19,060  
Reserves and accruals     2,836       5,405  
Tax credits     1,349       763  
Gross deferred tax assets     28,465       25,228  
Less valuation allowance     (28,401 )     (25,148 )
Total deferred tax assets     64       80  
Deferred tax liabilities:                
Amortization of acquired intangibles     (64 )     (467 )
Total deferred tax liabilities     (64 )     (467 )
Net deferred tax liabilities   $ 0     $ (387 )


As of December 31, 2018, the Company had net operating loss carryforwards of $98.3 million and $51.0 million for federal and state income tax purposes, respectively. The federal net operating losses of $85.7 million which were generated in tax years beginning before January 1, 2018, will begin to expire in 2030 if not utilized. The balance of the net operating losses, $12.6 million do not expire. The state net operating losses expire at various times depending on the state with a majority beginning to expire in 2030 if not utilized.


As of December 31, 2018, the Company had R&D credit carryforwards of approximately $948 and $500 for federal and state income tax purposes, respectively. The federal and Texas R&D credits will begin to expire in 2034, unless previously utilized. California R&D credits carry forward indefinitely.


Utilization of the net operating losses (NOL) and tax credit carryforwards may be subject to a substantial annual limitation due to ownership change limitations that may have occurred or that could occur in the future, as required by Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) of 1986, as amended (the Code), as well as similar state and foreign provisions. These ownership changes may limit the amount of NOL and tax credit carryforwards that can be utilized annually to offset future taxable income. In general, an “ownership change” as defined by Section 382 of the Code results from a transaction or series of transactions over a three-year period resulting in an ownership change of more than 50 percentage points of the outstanding stock of a company by certain stockholders.


As of December 31, 2018, the Company had not yet completed its analysis of the deferred tax assets for its NOL and tax credits. The future utilization of the Company’s net operating loss to offset future taxable income may be subject to an annual limitation under IRC Section 382 as a result of ownership changes that may have occurred previously or that could occur in the future. The Company has not yet determined whether such an ownership change has occurred. In order to make this determination, the Company will need to complete an analysis regarding the limitation of the net operating loss.


The Company has established a full valuation allowance for its deferred tax assets due to uncertainties that preclude it from determining that it is more likely than not that the Company will be able to generate sufficient taxable income to realize such assets. The Company monitors positive and negative factors that may arise in the future as it assesses the need for a valuation allowance against its deferred tax assets. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, the Company has a valuation allowance of $28,401 and $25,148 respectively, against its deferred tax assets.


The Company accounts for the provisions under the Income Taxes topic of the ASC which addresses accounting for the uncertainty in income taxes. The evaluation of a tax position in accordance with this topic is a two-step process. The first step involves recognition. The Company determines whether it is more likely than not that a tax position will be sustained upon tax examination, including resolution of any related appeals or litigation, based on only the technical merits of the position.


The technical merits of a tax position derive from both statutory and judicial authority (legislation and statutes, legislative intent, regulations, rulings, and case law) and their applicability to the facts and circumstances of the tax position. If a tax position does not meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold, the benefit of that position is not recognized in the financial statements. The second step is measurement. A tax position that meets the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold is measured to determine the amount of benefit to recognize in the financial statements. The tax position is measured as the largest amount of benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate resolution with a taxing authority.


Uncertain tax positions are evaluated based upon the facts and circumstances that exist at each reporting period. Subsequent changes in judgment based upon new information may lead to changes in recognition, de-recognition, and measurement. Adjustments may result, for example, upon resolution of an issue with the taxing authorities, or expiration of a statute of limitations barring an assessment for an issue.


The following is a tabular reconciliation of the total amounts of unrecognized tax benefits:


    December 31,  
    2018     2017  
Unrecognized tax benefits, beginning of period   $ 889     $ 594  
Tax positions taken in prior periods:                
Gross increases     166        
Gross decreases            
Tax positions taken in current period:                
Gross increases     461       295  
Lapse of statute of limitations              
Unrecognized tax benefits, end of period   $ 1,516     $ 889  


The Company’s practice is to recognize interest and/or penalties related to income tax matters in income tax expense. The Company had no accrual for interest and penalties on the consolidated balance sheets and has not recognized interest and/or penalties in the consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive loss for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.


The Company is subject to taxation in the United States and various state jurisdictions. The Company’s tax years from inception are subject to examination by the United States and state taxing authorities due to the carryforward of unutilized NOLs.


On December 22, 2017, the United States enacted significant changes to the U.S. tax law following the passage and signing of H.R.1, “An Act to Provide for Reconciliation Pursuant to Titles II and V of the Concurrent Resolution on the Budget for Fiscal Year 2018” (the “Tax Act”) (previously known as “The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act”). The Tax Act significantly revised the U.S. corporate income tax regime by, among other things, lowering the corporate tax rate from 35% to 21%. The Tax Act reduced the U.S. corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%, effective January 1, 2018. The Company re-measured its deferred tax assets and liabilities as of December 31, 2017, applying the reduced corporate income tax rate and recorded a provisional decrease to the deferred tax assets and liabilities of $12.7 million, with a corresponding adjustment to the valuation allowance.


Effective January 1, 2018, the Company is subject to several provisions of the Tax Act, including new taxes on certain foreign-sourced earnings, and related party payments, also referred to as the Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income (“GILTI”) and Foreign Derived Intangible Income (“FDII”) and the Base Erosion and Anti-Abuse Tax (“BEAT”). The Company does not meet the revenue threshold for BEAT. For the GILTI and FDII computations, because the foreign subsidiaries of the Company have a cumulative net deficit position and current year losses, there is no impact of GILTI and FDII for December 31, 2018. The Company has elected to account for potential taxes due on future U.S. inclusions in taxable income related to GILTI using a period cost method. The Company will continue to monitor the forth coming regulations and additional guidance of the GILTI, FDII, and BEAT provision under the Tax Act, which are complex and subject to continuing regulatory interpretation by the IRS.


As required by SEC Staff Accounting Bulletin 118, Income Tax Accounting Implications of the Tax Act, we have finalized our accounting analysis based on the guidance and regulations available as of December 31, 2018. We determined that the impact of the Tax Act is a decrease to the deferred tax assets and liabilities of $12.7 million with a corresponding offset to the valuation allowance resulting in no change to the Company’s effective tax rate.