Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
There have been no changes in significant accounting policies as described in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 20, 2019 for the year ended December 31, 2018, other than those described below.
Changes in Accounting Policies
On January 1, 2019, we adopted Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, as amended (“ASU 2014-09” or "ASC 606"), and have revised certain related accounting policies in connection with revenue recognition and deferred costs, as follows:
Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized upon transfer of control of promised products or services in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive in exchange for those products or services. The Company enters into contracts that can include various combinations of products and services, which are generally capable of being distinct, distinct within the context of the contract, and accounted for as separate performance obligations.
Our contracts with customers often include promises to transfer multiple products and services to a customer. Determining whether products and services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately versus
together may require significant judgment. Judgment is required to determine whether a software license is considered distinct and accounted for separately, or not distinct and accounted for together with the software support and services and recognized over time.
Platform Subscriptions and Services Revenue
The Company derives subscription revenue from software license fees, which comprise subscription fees from customers licensing the Company’s Software Development Kits (SDKs), which includes accessing the MaaS platform and/or MaaS platform data; application development service revenue from the development of customer applications, or apps, which are built and delivered to customers; and support fees. The Company’s contract terms generally range from 6 to 60 months.
Subscription revenue from SDK licenses gives the customer the right to access the Company’s MaaS platform. In accordance with ASC 606, a ‘right to access’ license is recognized over the license period.
Application development revenue is derived from development services around designing and building new applications or enhancing existing applications. The Company recognizes application development revenue upon the transfer of control of the completed application or application development services.
Support and maintenance revenue is comprised of support fees for customer applications, software updates, and technical support for application development services for a support term. Support revenue is recognized ratably over the support term.
When a customer contract consists of licensing, application development and support and maintenance, the Company considers these separate performance obligations, which would require an allocation of consideration.
From time to time, the Company also provides professional services by outsourcing employees to customers on a time and materials basis. Revenues from these arrangements are recognized as the services are performed. The Company bills professional service customers on the last day of the month in which the services are performed.
Application Transaction Revenue
The Company also generates revenue by charging advertisers to deliver advertisements (ads) to users of mobile connected devices. Depending on the specific terms of each advertising contract, the Company generally recognizes revenue based on the activity of mobile users viewing these ads. Fees from advertisers are commonly based on the number of ads delivered or views, clicks, or actions by users on mobile advertisements delivered, and the Company recognizes revenue at the time the user views, clicks, or otherwise acts on the ad. The Company sells ads through several offerings: cost per thousand impressions, on which advertisers are charged for each ad delivered to 1,000 consumers; cost per click, on which advertisers are charged for each ad clicked or touched on by a user; and cost per action, on which advertisers are charged each time a consumer takes a specified action, such as downloading an app. In addition, the Company generates application transaction revenue thru in-app purchases from an application on our platform.
In the normal course of business, the Company acts as an intermediary in executing transactions with third parties. The determination of whether revenue should be reported on a gross or net basis is based on an assessment of whether the Company is acting as the principal or an agent in its transactions with advertisers. Control is a determining factor in assessing principal versus agent relation. The determination of whether the Company is acting as a principal or an agent in a transaction involves judgment and is based on an evaluation of the terms of each arrangement. ASC 606 provides indicators of when an entity controls specified goods or services and is therefore acting as a principal. Based on the indicators of control, the Company has determined that it is the principal in all advertising arrangements because it is responsible for fulfilling the promise to provide the specified advertisements to advertising agencies or companies; establishing the selling prices of the advertisements sold; and credit risk with its advertising traffic providers. Accordingly, the Company acts as the principal in all advertising arrangements and therefore reports revenue earned and costs incurred related to these transactions on a gross basis.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Items subject to the use of estimates include revenue recognition for contract completion, useful lives of long-lived assets including intangibles, valuation of intangible assets acquired in business combinations, reserves and certain accrued liabilities, determination of the provision for income taxes, and fair value of equity instruments.
Loss per Common Share
Basic loss per share is computed by dividing net loss by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding during the period. Restricted shares subject to repurchase provisions relating to early exercises under the Company’s 2009 Equity Incentive Plan were excluded from basic shares outstanding. Diluted earnings per share is computed by giving effect to all potential shares of common stock, including those related to the Company’s outstanding warrants and options, to the extent dilutive. For all periods presented, these shares were excluded from the calculation of diluted loss per share of common stock because their inclusion would have been anti-dilutive. As a result, diluted loss per common share is the same as basic loss per common share for those periods.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Authoritative guidance on fair value measurements defines fair value, establishes a consistent framework for measuring fair value, and expands disclosures for each major asset and liability category measured at fair value on either a recurring or non-recurring basis. Fair value is an exit price representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability. As a basis for considering such assumptions, the authoritative guidance establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:
Level 1 — Observable inputs such as quoted prices in active markets.
Level 2 — Inputs, other than the quoted prices in active markets, that are observable either directly or indirectly.
Level 3 — Unobservable inputs in which there is little or no market data, which require the reporting entity to develop its own assumptions.
The fair value hierarchy also requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value.
The carrying value of accounts receivable, prepaid expenses, other current assets, accounts payable, and accrued expenses are considered to be representative of their respective fair values because of the short-term nature of those instruments.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
The Company’s financial instruments that are exposed to concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash and trade accounts receivable. Although the Company limits its exposure to credit loss by depositing its cash with established financial institutions that management believes have good credit ratings and represent minimal risk of loss of principal, its deposits, at times, may exceed federally insured limits. Collateral is not required for accounts receivable, and the Company believes the carrying value approximates fair value.
The following table sets forth the Company's concentration of revenue sources as a percentage of total net revenues.
Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30,
2019 2018 2019 2018
Fox Networks Group 55  % 60  % 58  % 39  %
Fetch Media, Ltd. —  % —  % —  % 26  %
The following table sets forth the Company's concentration of accounts receivable, net of specific allowances for doubtful accounts.
September 30, 2019 December 31, 2018
Fox Networks Group 50  % 66  %
Parkview Health 10  % —  %
The Company completed its contractual obligations under its statement of work with Fox Networks Group ("Fox") as of September 30, 2019. While the underlying master services agreement with Fox (setting forth general terms and conditions) remains in place, the Company does not have any active statements of work with Fox.
Cash, Cash Equivalents, and Restricted Cash
The Company considers all investments with a maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition to be cash equivalents. The Company had no cash equivalents as of September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018.
As a result of the Series A Financing (defined and discussed further below), the Company had $5,500 in restricted cash as of December 31, 2018. The Company did not have any restricted cash as of September 30, 2019. 
Accounts Receivable and Reserves
Accounts receivable are presented net of allowances. The Company considers receivables past due based on the contractual payment terms. The Company makes judgments as to its ability to collect outstanding receivables and records a bad debt allowance for receivables when collection becomes doubtful. The allowances are based upon historical loss patterns, current and prior trends in its aged receivables, credit memo activity, and specific circumstances of individual receivable balances.
Accounts receivable consisted of the following:
September 30,
December 31,
Accounts receivable $ 6,457    $ 6,882   
Less allowances for doubtful accounts (3,216)   (3,276)  
Balance $ 3,241    $ 3,606   
Allowance for doubtful accounts related to the Company’s litigation with Uber was $3,089 as of September 30, 2019 and December 31, 2018. (See Note 6 for more discussion on the Uber litigation.)
Long-Lived Assets
In accordance with authoritative guidance, the Company periodically re-evaluates the original assumptions and rationale utilized in the establishment of the carrying value and estimated lives of all of its long-lived assets, including property and equipment. The determinants used for this evaluation include management’s estimate of the asset’s ability to generate positive income from operations and positive cash flow in future periods as well as the strategic significance of the asset to the Company’s business objective. The Company did not recognize any impairment losses during the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019 or 2018, respectively.
Deferred Revenue
The Company’s deferred revenue balance consisted of the following:
September 30,
December 31,
Current deferred revenue
Platform subscriptions and services revenue $ 3,076    $ 1,506   
Application transaction revenue 92    133   
PhunCoin deposits —    990   
Total current deferred revenue $ 3,168    $ 2,629   
Non-current deferred revenue
Platform subscriptions and services revenue $ 4,167    $ 5,622   
Total non-current deferred revenue $ 4,167    $ 5,622   
Total deferred revenue $ 7,335    $ 8,251   
Deferred revenue consists of customer billings or payments received in advance of the recognition of revenue under the arrangements with customers. The Company recognizes deferred revenue as revenue only when revenue recognition criteria are met. During the three months ended September 30, 2019, the Company recognized revenue of $1,321 that was included in its deferred revenue balance as of June 30, 2019. During the nine months ended September 30, 2019, the Company recognized revenue of $2,863 that was included in its deferred revenue balance as of December 31, 2018. Remaining performance obligations were $7,956 as of September 30, 2019, of which the Company expects to recognize 41% as revenue over the next 12 months and the reminder thereafter.

During the second quarter of 2019, Phunware announced the launch of a separate token, Phun, in addition to its current token, PhunCoin. As a result of this expanded dual token structure, the Company believes the economic substance and business characteristics of all previously issued PhunCoin Rights changed such that PhunCoin would be the investment vehicle in the Company's blockchain-enabled data exchange. As a result, the Company has reclassified all PhunCoin deposits from deferred revenue to a separate line item, "PhunCoin deposits," on its condensed consolidated balance sheet as of September 30, 2019.
Emerging Growth Company
Section 102(b)(1) of the JOBS Act exempts emerging growth companies from being required to comply with new or revised financial accounting standards until private companies are required to comply with the new or revised financial accounting standards. The JOBS Act provides that a company can elect to opt out of the extended transition period and comply with the requirements that apply to non-emerging growth companies but any such an election to opt out is irrevocable. The Company has elected not to opt out of such extended transition period which means that when a standard is issued or revised and it has different application dates for public or private companies, the Company, as an emerging growth company, can adopt the new or revised standard at the time private companies adopt the new or revised standard.
Recently Adopted Accounting Policies
In May 2014, the FASB and the International Accounting Standards Board jointly issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which is a comprehensive new revenue recognition standard that will supersede nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under U.S. GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards. The standard’s core principle is that a company will recognize revenue when it transfers promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. In doing so, companies will need to use more judgment and make more estimates than under current authoritative guidance. These may include identifying performance obligations in the contract, estimating the amount of variable consideration to include in the transaction price, and allocating the transaction price to each separate performance obligation.
The Company elected to take advantage of the extended transition period provided in Securities Act Section 7(a)(2)(B) for complying with new or revised accounting standards. As a result, we adopted the ASU and related guidance as of January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective method.
The most significant impact of the standard relates to the elimination of the requirement to have vendor specific objective evidence, or VSOE, of fair value to separate and recognize revenue for products and services in a contract. The elimination of the VSOE requirement causes a significant change to the timing of revenue recognition for multiple-element arrangements with our MaaS subscriptions, application development services and related support and maintenance on the development services that lacked VSOE of fair value. Under ASC 606, we recognize the application development services at the time of delivery to our customer and recognize the license subscription and support services ratably over the term of the subscription agreements. Under the previous standards, we recognized all revenue from those arrangements ratably over the term of the subscription or support agreements. Due to the complexity of our revenue contracts, the actual revenue recognition treatment required under the new standard depends on contract-specific terms and in some instances may vary from recognition at the time of delivery. The timing of revenue recognized from professional services, support and maintenance and hardware remains substantially unchanged.
In addition, Accounting Standards Codification Subtopic 340-40, Other Assets and Deferred Costs - Contracts with Customers, or ASC 340, requires us to recognize an asset for the incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a customer if our sales incentive programs meet the requirements for capitalization. Previously we recorded these incremental costs of obtaining a contract as commission expense when we booked a sales transaction; whereas under ASC 340, we record an asset for the incremental cost to obtain a contract and recognize the cost over the period commensurate with revenue recognition.
When implementing ASC 606, the Company applied the practical expedient to reflect the aggregate effect of all contracts that were not completed as of January 1, 2019 when identifying satisfied and unsatisfied performance obligations, determining the transaction price, and allocating the transaction price to the satisfied and unsatisfied performance obligations.
The following table sets forth the cumulative impact of the adoption of the new revenue standard for select condensed consolidated balance sheet line items:
Balance at December 31, 2018 Adjustments due
to ASU 2014-09
Balance at
January 1, 2019
Prepaid expenses and other current assets $ 272    $ 369    $ 641   
Deferred revenue short-term $ 2,629    $ (465)   $ 2,164   
Deferred revenue long-term $ 5,622    $ (253)   $ 5,369   
Stockholders’ deficit:
Accumulated deficit $ (111,820)   $ 1,087    $ (110,733)  

The following tables summarize the significant impacts of adopting ASC 606 on our financial statements as of and for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019:

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet
September 30, 2019
As reported Impact of Adoption Balances Without Adoption of ASC 606
Prepaid expenses and other current assets $ 637    $ (365)   $ 272   
Deferred revenue short-term $ 3,168    $ 218    $ 3,386   
Deferred revenue long-term $ 4,167    $ 154    $ 4,321   
Stockholders’ deficit:
Accumulated deficit $ (119,720)   $ (737)   $ (120,457)  

Condensed Consolidated Statement of Operations
Three Months Ended September 30, 2019
As reported Impact of Adoption Amounts Without Adoption of ASC 606
Net revenue $ 5,637    $ 55    $ 5,692   
Sales and marketing $ 705    $ (9)   $ 696   
Net loss $ (2,426)   $ 64    $ (2,362)  
Net loss per share, basic and diluted $ (0.06)   $ —    $ (0.06)  
Nine Months Ended September 30, 2019
As reported Impact of Adoption Amounts Without Adoption of ASC 606
Net revenue $ 16,462    $ 346    $ 16,808   
Sales and marketing $ 2,094    $ (4)   $ 2,090   
Net loss $ (8,987)   $ 350    $ (8,637)  
Net loss per share, basic and diluted $ (0.25)   $ 0.01    $ (0.24)  
In connection with our adoption of ASC 606 on January 1, 2019, there was an increase to the Company’s deferred income tax liabilities and an offsetting reduction in the valuation allowance recorded against deferred tax assets.  No income tax impact was recorded to retained earnings upon adoption as a result of the full valuation allowance on United States deferred tax assets. During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019, there is no income tax expense or benefit recorded as a result of the adoption of the ASC 606.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash (“ASU 2016-18), which provides amendments to current guidance to address the classification and presentation of changes in restricted cash in the statement of cash flows. We adopted ASU 2016-18 effective January 1, 2019 on a retrospective basis. The adoption of this guidance changed the presentation of restricted cash on the Company’s condensed consolidated statement of cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2019. There was no impact to the Company’s condensed consolidated statement of cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2018.
In August 2018, the SEC adopted the final rule under SEC Release No. 33-10532, “Disclosure Update and Simplification,” amending certain disclosure requirements that were redundant, duplicative, overlapping, outdated or superseded. In addition, the amendments expanded the disclosure requirements on the analysis of stockholders’ equity for interim financial statements. Under the amendments, an analysis of changes in each caption of stockholders’ equity presented in the balance sheet must be provided in a note or separate statement. The analysis should present a reconciliation of the beginning balance to the ending balance of each period for which a statement of comprehensive income is required to be filed. This final rule was effective on November 5, 2018. The Company adopted this disclosure beginning with its quarterly report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2019.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The core principle of Topic 842 is that a lessee should recognize the assets and liabilities that arise from leases. For operating leases, a lessee is required to recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability, initially measured at the present value of the lease payments, in the statement of financial position. For leases with a term of 12 months or less, a lessee is permitted to make an accounting policy election by class of underlying asset not to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities. Under current U.S. GAAP, the Company recognizes rent expense on a straight-line basis for all operating leases, taking into account fixed accelerations, as well as reasonably assured renewal periods. The accounting applied by a lessor is largely unchanged from that applied under previous generally accepted accounting principles. This ASU is effective for the Company for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Earlier application is permitted. In transition, lessees and lessors are required to recognize and measure leases at the beginning of the earliest period presented using a modified retrospective approach. As a result of this new standard, we expect to record a lease commitment liability and corresponding right-of-use asset for our leases designated as operating leases in Note 6, "Commitments and Contingencies" and Note 13, "Subsequent Events," upon adoption. The Company does not expect the new statement to materially impact our results of operations and does not plan on recasting prior periods.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01 Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business. ASU 2017-01 provides a new framework for entities to determine whether a set of assets and activities (together referred to as “a set”) is a business. The amendments in the ASU will assist entities when they evaluate whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) either of businesses or of assets. This distinction is important since there are significant differences between the accounting for business combinations and the accounting for acquisitions of assets. Public business entities should apply the amendments to Topic 805 to annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those periods. All other entities should apply the amendments to annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019. As the Company is an
emerging growth company, it has elected to defer implementation. The Company does not believe there will be a material impact to the consolidated financial statements upon adoption.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-04 Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Topic 350): Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment. ASU 2017-04 simplifies how all entities assess goodwill for impairment by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. As amended, the goodwill impairment test will consist of one step; comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An entity should recognize a goodwill impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. Public business entities that are SEC filers should adopt the amendments in this ASU for their annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. A public business entity that is not an SEC filer should adopt the amendments in this Update for its annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. All other entities, including not-for-profit entities, that are adopting the amendments in this Update should do so for their annual or any interim goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The Company does not anticipate the adoption of ASU 2017-04 will have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13—Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement. ASU 2018-13 improves the effectiveness of disclosures about fair value measurements required under ASC 820. ASU 2018-13 is effective for all entities for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. The amendments on changes in unrealized gains and losses, the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements, and the narrative description of measurement uncertainty should be applied prospectively for only the most recent interim or annual period presented in the initial fiscal year of adoption. All other amendments should be applied retrospectively to all periods presented upon their effective date. Early adoption is permitted upon issuance of this Update. An entity is permitted to early adopt any removed or modified disclosures upon issuance of this Update and delay adoption of the additional disclosures until their effective date. The Company does not believe the adoption of ASU 2018-13 will have a material effect on our financial statements and their disclosures.